3D modeling of real objects by a 3D laser scanner has become popular in many applications, such as reverse engineering of petrochemical plants, civil engineering and construction, and digital preservation of cultural properties. Despite the development of lightweight and high-speed laser scanners, the complicated measurement procedure and long measurement time are still heavy burdens for widespread use of laser scanning. To solve these problems, a robotic 3D scanning system using multiple robots has been proposed. This system, named CPS-SLAM, consists of a parent robot with a 3D laser scanner and child robots with target markers. A large-scale 3D model is acquired by an on-board 3D laser scanner on the parent robot from several positions determined precisely by a localization technique, named the Cooperative Positioning System (CPS), that uses multiple robots. Therefore, this system can build a 3D model without complicated post-processing procedures such as ICP. In addition, this system is an open-loop SLAM system and a very precise 3D model can be obtained without closed loops. This paper proposes an automatic planning technique for a laser measurement by using CPS-SLAM. Planning a proper scanning strategy depending on a target structure makes it possible to perform laser scanning efficiently and accurately even for a large-scale and complex environment. The proposed technique plans an efficient scanning strategy automatically by taking account of several criteria, such as visibility between robots, error accumulation, and efficient traveling. We conducted computer simulations and outdoor experiments to verify the performance of the proposed technique.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Signal Processing
- Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition