This paper examines potential designs of videoconferencing systems for communicative language learning in learner-centered communication from the viewpoint of self-awareness. In this study, we focused on the effect of the presence of images on learn-ing. We compared four types of videoconferencing systems: (a) videoconferencing with both the learner’s own and the partner’s image, (b) one with only the partner’s image, (c) one with only the learner’s image, and (d) one without images (audioconferencing), each supporting the use of formulaic expressions concerning communication strategies as the learning objective. We investigated the effect of each type of videoconferencing on two features of language learning: the perceived effectiveness of the images and the assistance they provided during communication and learner performance. The results showed that the presence of both self-and partner images had a main effect on learning awareness as well as on some aspects of learner performance. In addition, path analysis revealed that both self-and partner images had a direct and indirect significant effect on learner performance by raising perceived awareness.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Language and Linguistics
- Linguistics and Language
- Computer Science Applications