Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of hospitalization. Suitable pharmacologic management is critical. Distinct physical findings such as congestion and peripheral hypoperfusion need to be considered in selecting pharmacologic therapy. By applying the pretest probability and likelihood ratios of unique physical findings of HF to a Markov model, a definite posttest probability can be obtained. This article focuses on the findings of S3, jugular venous pressure, proportional pulse pressure, bendopnea, trepopnea, and various heart murmurs. Incorporating statistical precision in physical assessments, diagnoses of HF can be further refined, providing a sophisticated approach to evaluate patients hemodynamics status noninvasively.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine