Purpose: We previously determined that the intake of beef extract for 4 weeks increases skeletal muscle mass in rats. Thus, this study aimed to clarify whether beef extract has a hypertrophic effect on muscle cells and to determine the signaling pathway underlying beef extract-induced myotube hypertrophy. Methods: We assessed the effects of beef extract supplement on mouse C2C12 skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation and myotube growth. In addition, the phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2, and mTOR following beef extract supplementation was examined by western blotting. Furthermore, the bioactive constituents of beef extract were examined using amino acid analysis and dialysis. Results: In the proliferative stage, beef extract significantly increased myoblast proliferation. In the differentiation stage, beef extract supplementation did not promote myoblast differentiation. In mature myotubes, beef extract supplementation increased myotube diameter and promoted protein synthesis. Although Akt and ERK1/2 levels were not affected, beef extract supplementation increased mTOR phosphorylation, which indicated that the mTOR pathway mediates beef extract-induced myotube hypertrophy. The hypertrophic activity was observed in fractions of > 7000 Da. Conclusions: Beef extract promoted C2C12 myoblast proliferation and C2C12 myotube hypertrophy. Myotube hypertrophy was potentially induced by mTOR activation and active components in beef extract were estimated to be > 7000 Da.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Nutrition and Dietetics