For a technically successful liver transplant (LT), secure bile duct anastomosis to prevent biliary complications (BC's) like biliary anastomotic stricture (BAS) and bile leak (BL) is mandatory. BC's after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) are relatively more common compared to deceased donor LT (DDLT), particularly owing to surgical factors (small diameter, and/or multiple bile duct openings on the graft), and non-surgical factors (immunologic reactions). Adequate blood supply to the bile duct both in donor and recipient, meticulous anastomotic technique, mucosal eversion for better approximation thus avoiding lesser fibrosis, proper use of internal or external stent drainage, and tension-free anastomosis, may contribute to the decrease of BC's after LDLT. Further, if BC's are not dealt with in a timely manner, these could progressively lead to severe morbidities and even mortality. While the endoscopic approach is preferred initially to deal with biliary leaks or strictures, the more invasive percutaneous approach may be required in case of endoscopic failure. Dedicated and experienced endoscopists, and interventional radiologists are key members of the multidisciplinary team in a successful LDLT program. In this review, we have tried to summarize current concepts in surgical techniques of biliary reconstruction in LDLT, incidence and risk factors for BC's, and principles followed to try and reduce the incidence of the same.
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