Background Hypertension is a key risk factor for adverse renal outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and strict blood pressure control is recommended to halt its progression. This study assessed blood pressure control in the Japanese CKD population. Methods We used a nationwide database of 250,130 subjects (aged 20-88), including 45,845 CKD subjects (18.3%), participated in an annual health check, The Specific Health Check and Guidance in Japan, and examined the relationship between CKD status and blood pressure. Blood pressures were measured in sitting position by trained staff, and target blood pressure for CKD subjects was defined as systolic (SBP)/diastolic blood pressure (DBP) <130/80mmHg. Results In total population, CKD subjects had a higher prevalence of hypertension (58.0% vs. 41.8%, P< 0.001) and a higher proportion with antihypertensive medication (42.4% vs. 26.7%, P< 0.001), compared with non-CKD subjects. The proportion of subjects achieving target blood pressure was significantly lower among total CKD subjects than among total non-CKD subjects (34.6% vs. 43.8%, P≤ 0.001). Among CKD subjects, these proportions were especially low in those with stage 4-5 (24.3-27.5%), those on antihypertensive medication (21.6%) and those with proteinuria ≥2±(21.3%). Logistic regression analysis showed that independent factors for high-blood pressure in CKD subjects were age, male gender, alcohol consumption, nonsmoking, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, proteinuria, and antihypertensive medication. Conclusions Blood pressure control was inadequate in the majority of Japanese CKD subjects, despite antihypertensive treatment. More aggressive efforts to achieve target blood pressures among CKD subjects are recommended.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine