Body shape index: Sex-specific differences in predictive power for all-cause mortality in the Japanese population

Yuji Sato, Shouichi Fujimoto, Tsuneo Konta, Kunitoshi Iseki, Toshiki Moriyama, Kunihiro Yamagata, Kazuhiko Tsuruya, Ichiei Narita, Masahide Kondo, Masato Kasahara, Yugo Shibagaki, Koichi Asahi, Tsuyoshi Watanabe

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26 Citations (Scopus)


Background: While body mass index (BMI) is the most widely used anthropometric measure, its association with all-cause mortality is generally J-shaped or U-shaped. A body shape index (ABSI) is a recently formulated anthropometric measure that shows linear relationship to all-cause mortality, especially in Caucasian cohorts. We aimed to address the relationship between ABSI and all-cause mortality in Asians and to assess the influence of sex difference and of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on this relationship. Methods: This was a longitudinal cohort study assessing the association of ABSI, BMI, waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with all-cause mortality in a Japanese nationwide Specific Health Checkup database. The study enrolled 160,625 participants followed-up between 2008 and 2012. We calculated the all-cause mortality risk associated with a 1-standard deviation increase (+1SD) in ABSI, BMI, WC, or WHtR in cohorts stratified by sex and the presence of CKD. Results: During the 4-year follow up, 1.3% of participants died. In men, ABSI (+1SD) significantly increased the risk for all-cause mortality after adjusting for other known risk factors including CKD; hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of non-CKD cohort, 1.30 (1.18 to 1.43), p<0.01; HR and 95%CI of CKD cohort, 1.16 (1.01 to 1.34), p = 0.04. In women, ABSI (+1SD) did not show significant association with all-cause mortality, especially in the CKD cohort; HR and 95% CI of non-CKD cohort, 1.07 (0.99 to 1.17), p = 0.09; HR and 95%CI of CKD cohort, 0.98 (0.84 to 1.14), p = 0.78. Conversely, BMI (+1SD) was associated with significantly lower risk in men, although minimal association was found in women. WC and WHtR showed little association with all-cause mortality. On stratification per ABSI quartiles, mortality risk increased linearly and significantly with ABSI in men, but not in women with CKD. Both BMI and WC showed significant but U-shaped association with mortality in the non-CKD cohort and in men with CKD. WHtR also showed significant U-shaped association with mortality in men. Conclusions: In the Japanese population, ABSI showed significant and linear correlation with mortality risk in men but not in women, especially in the presence of CKD.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0177779
JournalPloS one
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General


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