Hard X-rays have exceptional properties that are useful in the chemical, elemental and structure analysis of matter. Although single-nanometre resolutions in various hard-X-ray analytical methods are theoretically possible with a focused hard-X-ray beam, fabrication of the focusing optics remains the main hurdle. Aberrations owing to imperfections in the optical system degrade the quality of the focused beam. Here, we describe an in situ wavefront-correction approach to overcome this and demonstrate an X-ray beam focused in one direction to a width of 7 nm at 20 keV. We achieved focal spot improvement of the X-ray nanobeam produced by a laterally graded multilayer mirror. A grazing-incidence deformable mirror was used to restore the wavefront shape. Using this system, ideal focusing conditions are achievable even if hard-X-ray focusing elements do not achieve sufficient performance. It is believed that this will ultimately lead to single-nanometre spatial resolution in X-ray analytical methods.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy(all)