A comprehensive basicity study of α,ω-alkanediamines and related bases has been carried out. Basicities in acetonitrile (AN, pK a values), tetrahydrofuran (THF, pkα values), and gas phase (GP, GB values), were measured for 16, 14, and 9 diamine bases and for several related monoamines. In addition the gas-phase basicities and equilibrium geometries were computed for 19 diamino bases and several related monoamines at the DFT B3LYP 6-311+G** level. The effects of the different factors (intrinsic basicity of the amino groups, formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds, and molecular strain) determining the diamine basicities were estimated by using the method of isodesmic reactions. The results are discussed in terms of molecular structure and solvation effects. The GP basicity is determined by the molecular size and polarizability, the extent of alkylation, and the energy effect of intramolecular hydrogen bond formation in the protonated base. The basicity trends in the solvents differ very much from those in GP: 1)The solvents severely compress the basicity range of the bases studied (3.5 times for the 1,3-propanediamine family in AN, and 7 times in THF), and 2) while stepwise alkylation of the basicity center leads to a steady basicity increase in the gas phase, the picture is complex in the solvents. Significant differences are also evident between THF and AN. The high hydrogen bond acceptor strength of THF leads to this solvent favoring the bases with "naked" protonation centers. In particular, the basicity order of N-methylated 1,3-propanediamines is practically inverse to that in the gas phase. The picture in AN is intermediate between that of GP and THF.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Organic Chemistry