Carbon 1s X-ray photoelectron spectra of realistic samples of hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated CVD diamond (111) and (001)

Shozo Kono, Taisuke Kageura, Yuya Hayashi, Sung Gi Ri, Tokuyuki Teraji, Daisuke Takeuchi, Masahiko Ogura, Hideyuki Kodama, Atsuhito Sawabe, Masafumi Inaba, Atsushi Hiraiwa, Hiroshi Kawarada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Key factors in C 1s photoelectron spectroscopy for realistic samples of single crystal diamonds are remarked. Basic equations for angle-dependent photoelectron spectroscopy applied to single crystal diamond samples are described in Appendix A. Carbon 1s photoelectron spectroscopic works so far reported for hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated diamond (001) and (111) samples were reviewed placing special attention on surface C 1s components with reference to the key factors. The results showed diversity in C 1s photoelectron spectra so far reported. We had three specific subjects of the study in C 1s XPS; the first is that we have reconfirmed the phenomenon that surface conductive layers resumed when smooth non-doped CVD C(111)-O samples were annealed in vacuum [Diam.Rela.Mate.18(2009)206]. A single C 1s XPS surface component was found for a smooth C(111)-O sample before the vacuum-anneal, which was attributed to surface carbon atoms in C–O–H bonding. The second subject is that dependence of C 1s XPS spectra on surface sensitivity has been measured for all the samples with different surface roughness of C(001)-O, C(111)-O, C(001)-H, and C(111)-H. The results were converted to the energy difference between the Fermi-level (Ef) and valence band maximum (Ev) on the probing depth from the surface. All the samples showed downward bending of Ev toward the surface. For the C(001)-H samples, this was a reconfirmation of previous work [Surf.Sci.604(2010)1148]. For the C(001)-H and C(111)-H samples, various degrees of downward band bending toward surface were observed and analyzed with two-dimensional band simulation. It was concluded that another source of holes such as shallow acceptors is present in a deeper region of the surface in addition to holes very close to surface caused by the charge-transfer-doping. The third subject is that C 1s XPS spectra for superconducting C(111)-O samples showed a lattice distortion of ~9 monolayers near the surface.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)105-130
Number of pages26
JournalDiamond and Related Materials
Volume93
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2019
Externally publishedYes

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Diamond
Photoelectrons
Hydrogen
Chemical vapor deposition
Diamonds
Carbon
Oxygen
X rays
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Photoelectron spectroscopy
Single crystals
Vacuum
Surface phenomena
Valence bands
Fermi level
Charge transfer
Monolayers
Surface roughness
Doping (additives)
Atoms

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Carbon 1s X-ray photoelectron spectra of realistic samples of hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated CVD diamond (111) and (001). / Kono, Shozo; Kageura, Taisuke; Hayashi, Yuya; Ri, Sung Gi; Teraji, Tokuyuki; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Ogura, Masahiko; Kodama, Hideyuki; Sawabe, Atsuhito; Inaba, Masafumi; Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Kawarada, Hiroshi.

In: Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 93, 01.03.2019, p. 105-130.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kono, S, Kageura, T, Hayashi, Y, Ri, SG, Teraji, T, Takeuchi, D, Ogura, M, Kodama, H, Sawabe, A, Inaba, M, Hiraiwa, A & Kawarada, H 2019, 'Carbon 1s X-ray photoelectron spectra of realistic samples of hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated CVD diamond (111) and (001)', Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 93, pp. 105-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diamond.2019.01.017
Kono, Shozo ; Kageura, Taisuke ; Hayashi, Yuya ; Ri, Sung Gi ; Teraji, Tokuyuki ; Takeuchi, Daisuke ; Ogura, Masahiko ; Kodama, Hideyuki ; Sawabe, Atsuhito ; Inaba, Masafumi ; Hiraiwa, Atsushi ; Kawarada, Hiroshi. / Carbon 1s X-ray photoelectron spectra of realistic samples of hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated CVD diamond (111) and (001). In: Diamond and Related Materials. 2019 ; Vol. 93. pp. 105-130.
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abstract = "Key factors in C 1s photoelectron spectroscopy for realistic samples of single crystal diamonds are remarked. Basic equations for angle-dependent photoelectron spectroscopy applied to single crystal diamond samples are described in Appendix A. Carbon 1s photoelectron spectroscopic works so far reported for hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated diamond (001) and (111) samples were reviewed placing special attention on surface C 1s components with reference to the key factors. The results showed diversity in C 1s photoelectron spectra so far reported. We had three specific subjects of the study in C 1s XPS; the first is that we have reconfirmed the phenomenon that surface conductive layers resumed when smooth non-doped CVD C(111)-O samples were annealed in vacuum [Diam.Rela.Mate.18(2009)206]. A single C 1s XPS surface component was found for a smooth C(111)-O sample before the vacuum-anneal, which was attributed to surface carbon atoms in C–O–H bonding. The second subject is that dependence of C 1s XPS spectra on surface sensitivity has been measured for all the samples with different surface roughness of C(001)-O, C(111)-O, C(001)-H, and C(111)-H. The results were converted to the energy difference between the Fermi-level (Ef) and valence band maximum (Ev) on the probing depth from the surface. All the samples showed downward bending of Ev toward the surface. For the C(001)-H samples, this was a reconfirmation of previous work [Surf.Sci.604(2010)1148]. For the C(001)-H and C(111)-H samples, various degrees of downward band bending toward surface were observed and analyzed with two-dimensional band simulation. It was concluded that another source of holes such as shallow acceptors is present in a deeper region of the surface in addition to holes very close to surface caused by the charge-transfer-doping. The third subject is that C 1s XPS spectra for superconducting C(111)-O samples showed a lattice distortion of ~9 monolayers near the surface.",
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AU - Hayashi, Yuya

AU - Ri, Sung Gi

AU - Teraji, Tokuyuki

AU - Takeuchi, Daisuke

AU - Ogura, Masahiko

AU - Kodama, Hideyuki

AU - Sawabe, Atsuhito

AU - Inaba, Masafumi

AU - Hiraiwa, Atsushi

AU - Kawarada, Hiroshi

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N2 - Key factors in C 1s photoelectron spectroscopy for realistic samples of single crystal diamonds are remarked. Basic equations for angle-dependent photoelectron spectroscopy applied to single crystal diamond samples are described in Appendix A. Carbon 1s photoelectron spectroscopic works so far reported for hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated diamond (001) and (111) samples were reviewed placing special attention on surface C 1s components with reference to the key factors. The results showed diversity in C 1s photoelectron spectra so far reported. We had three specific subjects of the study in C 1s XPS; the first is that we have reconfirmed the phenomenon that surface conductive layers resumed when smooth non-doped CVD C(111)-O samples were annealed in vacuum [Diam.Rela.Mate.18(2009)206]. A single C 1s XPS surface component was found for a smooth C(111)-O sample before the vacuum-anneal, which was attributed to surface carbon atoms in C–O–H bonding. The second subject is that dependence of C 1s XPS spectra on surface sensitivity has been measured for all the samples with different surface roughness of C(001)-O, C(111)-O, C(001)-H, and C(111)-H. The results were converted to the energy difference between the Fermi-level (Ef) and valence band maximum (Ev) on the probing depth from the surface. All the samples showed downward bending of Ev toward the surface. For the C(001)-H samples, this was a reconfirmation of previous work [Surf.Sci.604(2010)1148]. For the C(001)-H and C(111)-H samples, various degrees of downward band bending toward surface were observed and analyzed with two-dimensional band simulation. It was concluded that another source of holes such as shallow acceptors is present in a deeper region of the surface in addition to holes very close to surface caused by the charge-transfer-doping. The third subject is that C 1s XPS spectra for superconducting C(111)-O samples showed a lattice distortion of ~9 monolayers near the surface.

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