Cathepsins in the osteoclast

Tetsuya Goto, Takayoshi Yamaza, Teruo Tanaka

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

69 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The mechanism by which bone collagen and other organic components are degraded by the osteoclast during osteoclastic bone resorption was unclear until the 1980s. Studies conducted since the early 1990s have identified lysosomal proteases, mainly cathepsins that are active at low pH, involved in osteoclastic bone resorption. Several cathepsins, such as cathepsins C, D, B, E, G and L, were initially demonstrated to take part in the degradation of organic bone matrix in osteoclasts. Cathepsin K, which has high proteolytic activity and localizes primarily in osteoclasts, was discovered in 1995. This first tissue-specific cathepsin was associated with pycnodysostosis, a genetic disorder observable as an osteopetrotic phenotype in cathepsin K-deficient mice. Cystatin C, an endogenous inhibitor of cysteine proteases, regulates the activity of cathepsin K. However, detailed morphological observations suggest that the organic bone matrix is degraded by not only cathepsin K, but also by matrix metalloproteinases or other cathepsins. The osteoclast possesses a unique endocytotic/exocytotic structure and each cathepsin is specifically localized in the osteoclast, which implies that each cathepsin contributes cooperatively to the process of osteoclastic bone resorption. Further studies may clarify the regulation of cathepsin activities and the roles of cathepsins during bone remodelling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)551-558
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Electron Microscopy
Volume52
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2003

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Cathepsins
Osteoclasts
bones
Cathepsin K
Bone
Bone Resorption
protease
Bone Matrix
matrices
Pycnodysostosis
Cathepsin C
phenotype
Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors
Cystatin C
cysteine
Cathepsin D
Inborn Genetic Diseases
collagens
Bone Remodeling
inhibitors

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Instrumentation

Cite this

Cathepsins in the osteoclast. / Goto, Tetsuya; Yamaza, Takayoshi; Tanaka, Teruo.

In: Journal of Electron Microscopy, Vol. 52, No. 6, 01.12.2003, p. 551-558.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Goto, Tetsuya ; Yamaza, Takayoshi ; Tanaka, Teruo. / Cathepsins in the osteoclast. In: Journal of Electron Microscopy. 2003 ; Vol. 52, No. 6. pp. 551-558.
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