Background: The ORC (Origin Recognition Complex) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a protein complex for the initiation of replication which interacts with a cis-element, ACS (ARS Consensus Sequence), essential for DNA replication. The protein-DNA complex detected by the DNase I genomic footprinting method has been shown to vary depending on cell cycle progression. Further studies on topological changes of replication origin in vivo caused by ORC association are crucial for an understanding of chromosomal DNA replication in S. cerevisiae. Results: Topological changes in the replication origins of the S. cerevisiae chromosome were studied by an in vivo UV photofootprinting method which is capable of detecting the change in the flexibility of DNA caused by protein binding. The footprinting method detected the inhibition and enhancement of UV-induced pyrimidine dimer formation in A and B1 elements of a chromosomal origin, ARS1, depending on the activity of native ORC subunits. Furthermore, footprint patterns were reproduced in vitro with purified ORC. The inhibition regarding the A element was stronger during the S to late M phase than that during the progression through the G1 phase. Functional CDC6 and MCM5 were required for maintaining the weaker inhibition state in G1-arrested cells. Conclusion: The application of in vivo UV photofootprinting in studies of topological changes of S. cerevisiae replication origins revealed the presence of two modes of topological ORC-ACS interaction. The weaker footprint in the G1 phase represents a specific topology of ACS, resulting from an alteration of the ORC-ACS interaction aided by CDC6 and MCM5, and this topological change may make the replication origin competent for initiating DNA replication.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cell Biology