8-Oxoguanine, a major oxidized base lesion formed by reactive oxygen species, causes G to T transversion mutations or leads to cell death in mammals if it accumulates in DNA. 8-Oxoguanine can originate as 8-oxo-dGTP, formed in the nucleotide pool, or by direct oxidation of the DNA guanine base. MTH1, also known as NUDT1, with 8-oxo-dGTP hydrolyzing activity, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) an 8-oxoG DNA glycosylase, and MutY homolog (MUTYH) with adenine DNA glycosylase activity, minimize the accumulation of 8-oxoG in DNA; deficiencies in these enzymes increase spontaneous and induced tumorigenesis susceptibility. However, different tissue types have different tumorigenesis susceptibilities. These can be reversed by combined deficiencies in the defense systems, because cell death induced by accumulation of 8-oxoG in DNA is dependent on MUTYH, which can be suppressed by MTH1 and OGG1. In cancer cells encountering high oxidative stress levels, a high level of 8-oxo-dGTP accumulates in the nucleotide pool, and cells therefore express increased levels of MTH1 in order to eliminate 8-oxo-dGTP. Suppression of MTH1 may be an efficient strategy for killing cancer cells; however, because MTH1 and OGG1 protect normal tissues from oxidative-stress-induced cell death, it is important that MTH1 inhibition does not increase the risk of healthy tissue degeneration.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry