APJ was cloned as an orphan G protein-coupled receptor and shares a close identity with angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). Apelin is a peptide that has recently been identified as an endogenous ligand of the APJ. Apelin and APJ mRNA are expressed in peripheral tissue and the central nervous system. However, little is known about the effects of apelin in cardiovascular regulation. To examine the central and peripheral role of apelin, we injected the active fragment of apelin [(Pyr 1)apelin-13] intracerebroventricularly (ICV, 5 and 20 nmol, n=6) or intravenously (IV, 20 and 50 nmol, n=4 or 5) in conscious rats. ICV injection of (Pyr 1)apelin-13 dose-dependently increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) (19±3 mm Hg and 162±26 bpm at 20 nmol). Pretreatment with ICV injection of the AT1R antagonist (CV-11974, 20 nmol) did not alter the apelin-induced increase in MAP and HR. IV injection of (Pyr 1)apelin-13 also dose-dependently increased MAP and HR (13±2 mm Hg and 103±18 bpm at 50 nmol); however, the peripheral effects of apelin were relatively weak compared to its central effects. Expression of c-fos in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of hypothalamus was increased in the rat that received ICV injection of (Pyr 1)apelin-13 but not in the rat that received IV injection of (Pyr 1)apelin-13. These results suggest that apelin plays a role in both central and peripheral cardiovascular regulation in conscious rats, and that the cardiovascular effects of apelin are not mediated by the AT1R.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience