The changes in excess thermodynamic quantities upon the contact of two solutes immersed in a solvent are analyzed using the radial-symmetric and three-dimensional versions of the integral equation theory. A simple model mimicking a solute in water is employed. The solute-solute interaction energy is not included in the calculations. Under the isochoric condition, the solute contact always leads to a positive entropy change irrespective of the solute solvophobicity or solvophilicity. The energy change is negative for solvophobic solutes while it is positive for solvophilic ones. Under the isobaric condition, the contact of solvophobic solutes results in system-volume compression but that of solvophilic ones gives rise to expansion. Effects of the compression and expansion on the changes in enthalpy and entropy are enlarged with rising temperature. When the solute solvophobicity is sufficiently high, the entropy change (multiplied by the absolute temperature) can become negative due to the compression, except at low temperatures with the result of an even larger, negative enthalpy change. The expansion in the case of solvophilic solutes leads to a large, positive entropy change accompanied by an even larger, positive enthalpy change. The changes in enthalpy and entropy are strongly dependent on the temperature. However, the changes in enthalpy and entropy are largely cancelled out and the temperature dependency of the free-energy change is much weaker. The authors also discuss possible relevance to the enthalpy-entropy compensation experimentally known for a variety of physicochemical processes in aqueous solution such as protein folding.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry