Characterization of a mutation in a family with saposin B deficiency: a glycosylation site defect

K A Kretz, G S Carson, S Morimoto, Y Kishimoto, A L Fluharty, J S O'Brien

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Saposins are small, heat-stable glycoproteins required for the hydrolysis of sphingolipids by specific lysosomal hydrolases. Saposins A, B, C, and D are derived by proteolytic processing from a single precursor protein named prosaposin. Saposin B, previously known as SAP-1 and sulfatide activator, stimulates the hydrolysis of a wide variety of substrates including cerebroside sulfate, GM1 ganglioside, and globotriaosylceramide by arylsulfatase A, acid beta-galactosidase, and alpha-galactosidase, respectively. Human saposin B deficiency, transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait, results in tissue accumulation of cerebroside sulfate and a clinical picture resembling metachromatic leukodystrophy (activator-deficient metachromatic leukodystrophy). We have examined transformed lymphoblasts from the initially reported saposin B-deficient patient and found normal amounts of saposins A, C, and D. After preparing first-strand cDNA from lymphoblast total RNA, we used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify the prosaposin cDNA. The patient's mRNA differed from the normal sequence by only one C----T transition in the 23rd codon of saposin B, resulting in a threonine to isoleucine amino acid substitution. An affected male sibling has the same mutation as the proband and their heterozygous mother carries both the normal and mutant sequences, providing additional evidence that this base change is the disease-causing mutation. This base change results in the replacement of a polar amino acid (threonine) with a nonpolar amino acid (isoleucine) and, more importantly, eliminates the glycosylation signal in this activator protein. One explanation for the deficiency of saposin B in this disease is that the mutation may increase the degradation of saposin B by exposing a potential proteolytic cleavage site (arginine) two amino acids to the amino-terminal side of the glycosylation site when the carbohydrate side chain is absent.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2541-4
Number of pages4
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume87
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1990

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Saposins
Glycosylation
Mutation
Metachromatic Leukodystrophy
Isoleucine
Threonine
Amino Acids
Hydrolysis
Complementary DNA
Cerebroside-Sulfatase
Metachromatic Leukodystrophy due to Saposin B Deficiency
Sulfoglycosphingolipids
G(M1) Ganglioside
alpha-Galactosidase
Sphingolipids
Protein Precursors
Hydrolases
Amino Acid Substitution
DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases
Codon

Cite this

Characterization of a mutation in a family with saposin B deficiency : a glycosylation site defect. / Kretz, K A; Carson, G S; Morimoto, S; Kishimoto, Y; Fluharty, A L; O'Brien, J S.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 87, No. 7, 04.1990, p. 2541-4.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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N2 - Saposins are small, heat-stable glycoproteins required for the hydrolysis of sphingolipids by specific lysosomal hydrolases. Saposins A, B, C, and D are derived by proteolytic processing from a single precursor protein named prosaposin. Saposin B, previously known as SAP-1 and sulfatide activator, stimulates the hydrolysis of a wide variety of substrates including cerebroside sulfate, GM1 ganglioside, and globotriaosylceramide by arylsulfatase A, acid beta-galactosidase, and alpha-galactosidase, respectively. Human saposin B deficiency, transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait, results in tissue accumulation of cerebroside sulfate and a clinical picture resembling metachromatic leukodystrophy (activator-deficient metachromatic leukodystrophy). We have examined transformed lymphoblasts from the initially reported saposin B-deficient patient and found normal amounts of saposins A, C, and D. After preparing first-strand cDNA from lymphoblast total RNA, we used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify the prosaposin cDNA. The patient's mRNA differed from the normal sequence by only one C----T transition in the 23rd codon of saposin B, resulting in a threonine to isoleucine amino acid substitution. An affected male sibling has the same mutation as the proband and their heterozygous mother carries both the normal and mutant sequences, providing additional evidence that this base change is the disease-causing mutation. This base change results in the replacement of a polar amino acid (threonine) with a nonpolar amino acid (isoleucine) and, more importantly, eliminates the glycosylation signal in this activator protein. One explanation for the deficiency of saposin B in this disease is that the mutation may increase the degradation of saposin B by exposing a potential proteolytic cleavage site (arginine) two amino acids to the amino-terminal side of the glycosylation site when the carbohydrate side chain is absent.

AB - Saposins are small, heat-stable glycoproteins required for the hydrolysis of sphingolipids by specific lysosomal hydrolases. Saposins A, B, C, and D are derived by proteolytic processing from a single precursor protein named prosaposin. Saposin B, previously known as SAP-1 and sulfatide activator, stimulates the hydrolysis of a wide variety of substrates including cerebroside sulfate, GM1 ganglioside, and globotriaosylceramide by arylsulfatase A, acid beta-galactosidase, and alpha-galactosidase, respectively. Human saposin B deficiency, transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait, results in tissue accumulation of cerebroside sulfate and a clinical picture resembling metachromatic leukodystrophy (activator-deficient metachromatic leukodystrophy). We have examined transformed lymphoblasts from the initially reported saposin B-deficient patient and found normal amounts of saposins A, C, and D. After preparing first-strand cDNA from lymphoblast total RNA, we used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify the prosaposin cDNA. The patient's mRNA differed from the normal sequence by only one C----T transition in the 23rd codon of saposin B, resulting in a threonine to isoleucine amino acid substitution. An affected male sibling has the same mutation as the proband and their heterozygous mother carries both the normal and mutant sequences, providing additional evidence that this base change is the disease-causing mutation. This base change results in the replacement of a polar amino acid (threonine) with a nonpolar amino acid (isoleucine) and, more importantly, eliminates the glycosylation signal in this activator protein. One explanation for the deficiency of saposin B in this disease is that the mutation may increase the degradation of saposin B by exposing a potential proteolytic cleavage site (arginine) two amino acids to the amino-terminal side of the glycosylation site when the carbohydrate side chain is absent.

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