This study investigated the time transient effect of zinc (Zn) in the porous titanium dioxide formed by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment routinely performed for Zn-containing electrolytes. The aim of our analysis was to understand the changes in both the chemical and biological properties of Zn in physiological saline. The morphology of the Zn-incorporated MAO surface did not change, and a small amount of Zn ions were released at early stages of incubation in saline. We observed a decrease in Zn concentration in the oxide layer because its release and chemical state (Zn2+ compound to ZnO) changed over time during incubation in saline. In addition, the antibacterial property of the Zn-incorporated MAO surface developed at late periods after the incubation process over a course of 28 days. Furthermore, osteogenic cells were able to proliferate and were calcified on the specimens with Zn. The changes related to Zn in saline had non-toxic effects on the osteogenic cells. In conclusion, the time transient effect of Zn in a porous titanium dioxide layer was beneficial to realize dual functions, namely the antibacterial property and osteogenic cell compatibility. Our study suggests the importance of the chemical state changes of Zn to control its chemical and biological properties.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Surfaces and Interfaces
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry