Background: Transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) is a neonatal preleukemic syndrome that occurs exclusively in neonates with Down syndrome (DS). Most affected infants spontaneously resolve, although some patients culminate in hepatic failure despite the hematological remission. It is impossible to determine the patients who are at high risk of progressive liver disease and leukemic transformation. The objective is to search for biomarkers predicting the development of hepatic failure in DS infants with TAM. Methods: Among 60 newborn infants with DS consecutively admitted to our institutions from 2003 to 2016, 41 infants with or without TAM were enrolled for the study. Twenty-two TAM-patients were classified into “progression group” (n = 7) that required any therapy and “spontaneous resolution group” (n = 15). Serum concentrations of chemokines (CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CCL2 and CCL5) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 were measured at diagnosis of TAM for assessing the outcome of progressive disease. Results: Three patients developed leukemia during the study period (median, 1147 days; range, 33–3753). Three died of hepatic failure. All patients in the progression group were preterm birth <37 weeks of gestational age and were earlier than those in the spontaneous resolution group (median, 34.7 vs. 37.0 weeks, p < 0.01). The leukocyte counts and CXCL8 and CCL2 levels at diagnosis in the progression group were higher than those in the spontaneous resolution group (leukocyte: median, 81.60 vs. 27.30 × 109/L, p = 0.01; CXCL8: 173.8 vs. 34.3 pg/ml, p < 0.01; CCL2: 790.3 vs. 209.8 pg/mL, p < 0.01). Multivariate analyses indicated that an increased CCL2 value was independently associated with the progression and CXCL8 with the death of liver failure, respectively (CCL2: standardized coefficient [sc], 0.43, p < 0.01; CXCL8: sc = −0.46, p = 0.02). Conclusion: High levels of circulating CXCL8 and CCL2 at diagnosis of TAM may predict progressive hepatic failure in DS infants.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health