Excluding epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, v-Ki-ras2/Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutation, and echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion, the genetic alterations involved in lung adenocarcinogenesis, especially those linked to poor clinical outcomes, are still unknown. In this study, we analyzed abnormal checkpoint gene with forkhead-associated domain and ring finger (CHFR) methylation along with the above 3 mutations in 165 lung adenocarcinomas, evaluated the spectrum of each molecular abnormality, and correlated the results with clinical and pathologic variables. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction followed by direct DNA sequencing, and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect these 3 mutations and CHFR hypermethylation. The EML4-ALK transcript or CHFR hypermethylation was found in 11 (6.7%) or 16 (10%) adenocarcinomas, respectively, whereas EGFR or KRAS mutation was detected in 48 (29%) or 13 (8%) cases, respectively. EGFR mutations occurred in patients who were negative for both CHFR hypermethylation and KRAS mutation. Among the 4 genetic or epigenetic abnormalities, only CHFR hypermethylation was significantly correlated with poor prognosis and lymphatic vessel invasion (P =.024). Histopathologically, the molecular abnormality that correlated with alveolar-destructive growth was the CHFR hypermethylation rather than the EGFR mutation (P =.03). Our results demonstrate that CHFR hypermethylation maybe one of the molecular abnormalities involved in a subset of lung adenocarcinomas with poor prognoses that might be induced by destructive growth and lymphatic vessel invasion of carcinoma cells. Thus, CHFR abnormality might be pursued as a novel therapeutic target against lung adenocarcinoma without an already-known mutation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine