Background. Chronic kidney disease has been shown to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in high-risk populations. However, this relationship is inconclusive in community-based populations. Methods. To clarify this issue, we followed 2634 community-dwelling individuals without cardiovascular disease, aged 40 years or older, for 12 years and examined the relationship between chronic kidney disease and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Results. During the follow-up period, 99 subjects (56 men and 43 women) experienced coronary heart disease, 137 subjects (60 men and 77 women) ischemic stroke, and 60 subjects (26 men and 34 women) hemorrhagic stroke. In men, the age-adjusted incidence of coronary heart disease was significantly higher in subjects with chronic kidney disease than in those without it (6.2 vs. 2.9 per 1000 person-years) (P < 0.05), but such a relationship was not observed with ischemic stroke. In contrast, in women, the age-adjusted incidence of ischemic stroke was significantly higher in subjects with chronic kidney disease than in those without it (3.4 vs. 2.5) (P < 0.05), while that of coronary heart disease was not. Chronic kidney disease was not found to be associated with the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke. In multivariate analysis, even after adjustments for traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, chronic kidney disease was found to be an independent risk factor for the occurrence of coronary heart disease in men [hazard ratio (HR), 2.26; 95% CI, 1.06-4.79], and for the occurrence of ischemic stroke in women (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.15-3.15). Conclusion. Our findings suggest that chronic kidney disease is an independent risk factor for the occurrence of cardiovascular disease in the general Japanese population.
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