Chymotrypsin inhibitory conformation of dipeptides constructed by side chain–side chain hydrophobic interactions

Hiroshi Sakamoto, Yasuyuki Shimohigashi, Iori Maeda, Takeru Nose, Kin‐ichi ‐i Nakashima, Ichiro Nakamura, Tomoshisa Ogawa, Motonori Ohno, Keiichi Kawano

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Abstract

A complete series of configurationally isomers (L‐L, L‐D, D‐L AND D‐D) of a dipeptide Leu‐Phe benzyl ester have been synthesized and assayed for chymotrypsin. In the conformational analysis by 400 MMz 1H NMR, the L‐D and D‐L isomers, but not hte L‐L and D‐D isomers, showed fairly large up field shifts (0.2–0.4 ppm) of Leu‐βCH2 and γCH proton signals, indicating the presence of shielding effects from the benzene ring. In addition to distinct signal splitting of Phe‐βCH2, the NOE enhancement observed between Leu‐δCH3 and Phe‐phenyl groups revealed that these groups are in close proximity. These data indicated that L‐D and D‐L isomers from a hydrophobic core between side chains of adjacent Leu and Phe residues. When the dipeptides were examined for inhibition of chymotrypsin using Ac‐Try‐OEt as a substrate, the L‐L isomer showed no inhibition, itself becoming a substrate. However, the other three isomers inhibited chymotrypsin in a competitive manner, and the D‐L isomer was strongest with Ki of 2.2 × 10−5 M. It was found that the D‐L isomer was only slowly hydrolysed but the L(or D)‐D isomer was not. H‐D‐Phe‐L‐Leu‐OBzl with the inverse sequence of H‐D‐Leu‐L‐Pre‐OBzl inhibited chymotrypsin more strongly (Ki = 6.3 × 10−6 M). Since the free acid analogue of the D‐L isomer exhibited no inhibition, the benzyl ester moiety itself was thought to be involved in the enzyme inhibition. It is assumed that in the inhibitory conformation the ester‐benzyl group fits the S1 site of chymotrypsin, while the side chain‐side chain complexing hydrophobic core fits the S2 site.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95-100
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Molecular Recognition
Volume6
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1993

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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Structural Biology
  • Molecular Biology

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