Adenovirus (AdV) infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. We treated 16 patients with AdV hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) following HSCT with cidofovir (CDV; 1 mg/kg/day, three times weekly for 3 weeks). Patients included 10 males and six females with a median age of 50 years (range 10-62). Two of the 16 patients were unevaluable because of early death from nonadenoviral causes. CDV therapy cleared AdV from urine in 12 of 14 patients (86%). Of 14 patients, 10 (71%) showed clinical improvements in HC. Among 14 patients, seven (50%) had avoided renal damage, the most important CDV toxicity. One patient previously treated with foscarnet for cytomegalovirus (CMV) required hemodialysis, and CDV treatment was discontinued. In another patient, CDV treatment was discontinued because of grade 2 nephrotoxicity. Four patients became positive for CMV antigenemia while being treated with CDV, and two developed herpes simplex virus (HSV) stomatitis while being treated with CDV. CDV proved effective in treating AdV HC in transplant patients. However, CDV at 1 mg/kg/day given three times weekly failed to prevent breakthrough infection with CMV and HSV in some patients.
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