Periosteal chondrosarcoma is an extremely rare malignant cartilage-forming tumour that originates from the periosteum and occurs on the surface of bone. Often, it is difficult to distinguish periosteal chondrosarcoma from other tumours, and reports in the literature are scarce. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of periosteal chondrosarcoma, focusing particularly on medullary invasion. Among 33 periosteal cartilaginous tumours, seven patients with pathologically proven periosteal chondrosarcoma were identified retrospectively. The average tumour size was 5.4 cm in the long axis; two tumours were smaller than 3.0 cm. Six tumours were resected with a wide margin, and the remaining tumour had a marginal margin. Histology revealed that six tumours (85.7%) had invaded the medullary cavity; three of these did not show invasion into the medullary cavity on MRI evaluation. Neither local recurrence nor metastasis was observed among these patients. The frequency of invasion of the medullary cavity was higher than that reported previously. The recommended treatment for periosteal chondrosarcoma is resection with an adequate margin. Therefore, surgeons should consider the possibility of medullary invasion when attempting to achieve a histologically negative margin, even if the tumour does not show invasion into the medullary cavity on MRI.
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