The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), remains uncontrolled, with the spread of emerging variants. According to accumulating evidence, diabetes is one of the leading risk factors for a severe COVID-19 clinical course, depending on the glycemic state before admission and during COVID-19 hospitalization. Multiple factors are thought to be responsible, including an altered immune response, coexisting comorbidity, and disruption of the renin-angiotensin system through the virus–host interaction. However, the precise underlying mechanisms remain under investigation. Alternatively, the focus is currently on the diabetogenic and ketosis-prone potential of SARS-CoV-2 itself, even for probable triggers of stress and steroid-induced hyperglycemia in COVID-19. In this article, we present a comprehensive review of the recent literature on the clinical and experimental findings associated with diabetes and COVID-19, and we discuss their bidirectional relationship, i.e., the risk for an adverse prognosis and the deleterious effects on glycometabolism. Accurate as-sessments of the incidence of new-onset diabetes induced by COVID-19 and its pathogenicity are still unknown, especially in the context of the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 variants, such as Omicron (B.1.1.529), which is a major challenge for the future.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)