This study sought to identify subgroups of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) defined by specific patterns of emotional and behavioral symptoms according to the parent-rated Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Our clinical sample comprised 314 children (aged 4 to 15 years) diagnosed with ADHD according to the DSM-5. In addition, comorbid psychiatric disorders, general functioning, and medication status were assessed. Cluster analysis was performed on the CBCL syndrome subscales and yielded a solution with four distinct subgroups. The “High internalizing/externalizing” group displayed an overlap between internalizing and externalizing problems in the CBCL profile. In addition, the “High internalizing/externalizing” group revealed a high rate of comorbid autism spectrum disorder and elevated autistic traits. The “Inattention and internalizing” group revealed a high rate of the predominantly inattentive presentation according to ADHD specifier from the DSM-5. The “Aggression and externalizing” group revealed a high rate of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. The “Less psychopathology” group scored low on all syndrome scales. Children with ADHD were subdivided into four distinct subgroups characterized by psychopathological patterns, with and without internalizing and externalizing problems. The overlap between internalizing and externalizing problems may be mediated with emotional dysregulation and associated neurobiological bases.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Psychiatry and Mental health