Sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC) is sometimes associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and inverted sinonasal papilloma or oncocytic sinonasal papilloma. Frequent mutations of EGFR and KRAS are reported in inverted sinonasal papilloma-related sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (ISP-SCC) and oncocytic sinonasal papilloma-related SNSCC, respectively. Here, we attempted to determine the prevalence and the prognostic significances of these alterations in SNSCC. We retrospectively collected 146 SNSCCs, including 14 ISP-SCCs, and comprehensively analyzed the HR-HPV infection by human papillomavirus (HPV)-RNA in situ hybridization, EGFR gene copy number gain (CNG) by chromogenic in situ hybridization, and gene mutations in EGFR and KRAS by Sanger sequencing. HR-HPV was detected in 11 cases (7.5%), whereas all 14 ISP-SCCs were negative. EGFR mutations were present in 21 (14.7%) of 143 SNSCCs, including 13/14 (92.9%) ISP-SCCs and 8/129 (6.2%) non-ISP-SCCs (P<0.0001). The majority of EGFR mutations were exon 20 insertions, with the remainder composed of deletions and single-nucleotide substitutions in exons 19 and 20. All of 142 SNSCCs harbored no KRAS mutation. EGFR CNG was detected in 41 (28.1%) of 146 SNSCCs; all of them were HPV negative and 3 had EGFR mutations. Collectively, EGFR mutation, EGFR CNG, and HR-HPV were essentially mutually exclusive, and each subgroup had distinct clinicopathologic features. The HPV-negative/EGFR-mutant group, the HPV-negative/EGFR CNG-positive group, and the triple-negative group had significantly worse prognoses than the HPV-positive group (P=0.0265, 0.0264, and 0.0394, respectively). In conclusion, EGFR mutation may play a pathogenetically important role in some populations of SNSCCs, especially ISP-SCCs. The molecular subclassification of SNSCCs may contribute to prognostic prediction and molecular-targeted precision medicine.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine