Purpose: The aim of this study was to report the incidence of lung cancer in patients with hematological malignancy (HM), as well as patient characteristics and outcome. Methods: We investigated 1503 consecutive patients treated for HM and 1208 patients who underwent surgical resection for lung cancer. Results: Lung cancer with HM was observed in 12 patients (0.8 % of HM cases and 1.0 % of lung cancer cases), including eight men who were smokers and four women who had never smoked. The average Brinkman index was 1010, which suggested heavy smokers. In synchronous cases, all four patients preceded to HM treatment; however, three patients died from HM. In metachronous cases, during a mean 52.7 months after treatment of lung cancer, three patients had HM. At a mean 41.4 months after HM treatment, five patients had lung cancer and underwent surgery without serious postoperative events. Conclusions: A second cancer tended to be detected within 5 years after treatment of the first cancer. Men with a history of heavy smoking might be at risk for combined lung cancer and HM. Careful follow-up is recommended within 5 years after treatment of the first cancer. Most lung cancer detected synchronously with HM had poor prognosis. In metachronous cases, surgical resection of lung cancer after treatment of HM was feasible and safe.
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