TGF-β promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and induces clusterin (CLU) expression, linking these genes to cancer metastasis. CLU is a pleiotropic molecular chaperone that confers survival and proliferative advantage to cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms by which TGF-β regulates CLU expression and CLU affects metastasis remain unknown. In this study, we report that the transcription factor Twist1 mediates TGF-β-induced CLU expression. By binding to E-boxes in the distal promoter region of CLU gene, Twist1 regulated basal and TGF-β-induced CLU transcription. In addition, CLU reduction reduced TGF-β induction of the mesenchymal markers, N-cadherin and fibronectin, thereby inhibiting the migratory and invasive properties induced by TGF-β. Targeted inhibition of CLU also suppressed metastasis in an in vivo model. Taken together, our findings indicate that CLU is an important mediator of TGF-β-induced EMT, and suggest that CLU suppression may represent a promising therapeutic option for suppressing prostate cancer metastatic progression.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research