Background: Good outcomes have been reported regarding the use of cochlear implants for mumps deafness. The mumps virus induces meningitis and/or encephalitis, which can cause central nervous system damage resulting in retrolabyrinthine hearing loss, for which a cochlear implant would be less effective. Cases: We installed a cochlear implant in two patients with bilateral mumps deafness; one achieved a good result with the cochlear implant, but the other did not. We discuss two possible reasons for the different outcomes. Case 1 was a three-year-old girl with bilateral parotid swelling, vomiting and walking disorder. One year after cochlear implant insertion, speech perception did not develop despite of good pure tone thresholds. Case 2 was an eight-year-old girl with bilateral parotid swelling. A cochlear implant enabled her to improve hearing perception. Conclusion: Although cochlear implants have been reported to be helpful for mumps deafness, cases that involve central nervous system damage may not achieve good results.
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