This commentary examines a clash of different realities in the delivery of EMI at the institutional and classroom levels, first by reflecting on the previous Chapters (14, 15, 16 ) from the context of Vietnam, and subsequently by drawing from empirical cases within the context of Japan. While there seem to be common challenges in EMI policies, practices, and pedagogies for Vietnamese and Japanese higher education structures, the author highlights Japan-specific issues and situations that may add yet another layer to the already-strained system surrounding the implementation of EMI programmes. Specifically, with Japan’s hyper-aging population and low-birth rate as unavoidable realities, the once-popular discourse of “internationalization” may not hold importance or urgency in the operation of the country. The author ultimately calls for the need to revisit EMI programmes in Japan, among other countries with rapid sociopolitical and economic changes (e.g. Vietnam), in order to clarify the original intention and purpose of existing internationalisation policies.