Aluminum (Al) accumulators are widely distributed in the plant kingdom but phylogenetic implications of internal Al detoxification mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated differences in the characteristics of Al accumulation (i.e., accumulation potential, chemical form, and localization) in three woody Al accumulators, Symplocos chinensis (Lour.) Druce var. leucocarpa (Nakai) Ohwi f. pilosa (Nakai) Ohwi (Symplocaceae, Ericales), Melastoma malabathricum L., and Tibouchina urvilleana Cogn. (both Melastomataceae, Myrtales). The order of Al accumulation potential under hydroponic conditions was S. chinensis ≈ M. malabathricum > T. urvilleana. Oxalate was at least partly involved in the internal Al detoxification mechanisms in leaves of all three Al accumulators, based on a correlation analysis between Al and organic acid in water and 0.02 mol·L-1 HCl extracts and the 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of intact leaves. However, the Al forms in the leaves were not simple Al-ligand complexes in a specific cell structure. Al localization in leaf sections differed among the three species. Extremely high levels of Al were found in trichomes of the lower epidermis in leaves of T. urvilleana. These data illustrate that woody Al-accumulating angiosperms have independently developed various internal Al-tolerance mechanisms in which oxalate plays a significant role.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Plant Science