Fish embryo toxicology is important because embryos are more susceptible than adults to toxicants. In addition, the aquatic toxicity of chemicals depends on water quality. We examined the toxicities to medaka embryos of three types of silver—AgNO3, silver nanocolloids (SNCs), and silver ions from silver nanoparticle plates (SNPPs)—under three pH conditions (4.0, 7.0, and 9.0) in embryo-rearing medium (ERM) or ultrapure water. Furthermore, we tested the later-life-stage effects of SNCs on medaka and their population growth. “Later-life-stage effects” were defined here as delayed toxic effects that occurred during the adult stage of organisms that had been exposed to toxicant during their early life stage only. AgNO3, SNCs, and silver ions were less toxic in ERM than in ultrapure water. Release of silver ions from the SNPPs was pH dependent: in ERM, silver toxicity was decreased owing to the formation of silver chloro-complexes. SNC toxicity was higher at pH 4.0 than at 7.0 or 9.0. AgNO3 was more toxic than SNCs. To observe later-life effects of SNCs, larvae hatched from embryos exposed to 0.01 mg/L SNCs in ultrapure water were incubated to maturity under clean conditions. The mature medaka were then allowed to reproduce for 21 days. Calculations using survival ratios and reproduction data indicated that the intrinsic population growth rate decreased after exposure of embryos to SNC. SNC exposure reduced the extinction time as a function of the medaka population-carrying capacity.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis