It is important to distinguish between leiomyosarcoma (LMS) and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLS) in the retroperitoneum. The dedifferentiated component of DDLS shows an LMS-like morphology in some cases; thus, detailed evaluation is necessary to achieve an accurate diagnosis. Immunohistochemically, MDM2 and myogenic markers provide clues for the diagnoses. However, immunoreactivity for MDM2 and myogenic markers has not been well studied in retroperitoneal LMS and DDLS. Here, we compared the clinicopathological data of 20 retroperitoneal tumors initially diagnosed as LMS with that of 36 cases of retroperitoneal DDLS and conducted an immunohistochemical study. Four (20%) of the cases initially diagnosed as LMS were immunoreactive for MDM2. Fifteen cases (41.7%) of DDLS showed positive expression of two or more myogenic markers. The patients with LMS with MDM2 overexpression were older than the patients with LMS without MDM2 overexpression (P = 0.0328). LMS with MDM2 overexpression showed a worse prognosis than DDLS (P = 0.0408). No significant difference in prognosis was found between LMS without MDM2 overexpression and DDLS with myogenic differentiation. In conclusion, we recommend that systemic MDM2 expression analysis be performed in cases of retroperitoneal sarcoma. Overdependence on the expression of myogenic markers could lead to misdiagnosis in distinguishing LMS from DDLS.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Cell Biology