Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) from an HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD) is a postremission treatment that offers a potential cure for adults with cytogenetically normal (CN) acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1). The best alternative in the absence of an MSD remains unclear, however. The aim of this study was to retrospectively compare the outcomes of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT; n = 177) and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from an HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD; n = 173) in adult patients with CN-AML/CR1. Both the multivariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71 to 1.97; P =.53) and propensity score models (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.80 to 2.43; P =.24) indicated that the leukemia-free survival (LFS) rate of auto-PBSCT was not significantly different from that of MUD-BMT. These results suggest that in the absence of an available MSD, auto-PBSCT remains a viable alternative as postremission therapy in patients with CN-AML/CR1.
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