Background: A comparison between atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (ATEZO/BEVA) and lenvatinib (LEN) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Objective: This study aimed to compare the therapeutic effects and safety of ATEZO/BEVA and LEN as first-line therapies for HCC. Patients and Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of 810 patients with HCC who underwent ATEZO/BEVA (n = 186) or LEN (n = 624) as first-line systemic therapy between March 2018 to March 2022 at 14 facilities. After propensity score matching, 304 patients (ATEZO/BEVA group: n = 152; LEN group: n = 152) were analyzed. Results: After propensity score matching, although there was no significant difference in objective response rates (ORRs) between the ATEZO/BEVA and LEN groups (ORR 44.8% vs. 46.7%, p = 0.644), the median progression-free survival (PFS) and median overall survival (OS) in the ATEZO/BEVA group were significantly higher than those in the LEN group (median PFS: 8.3 months vs. 6.0 months, p = 0.005; median OS: not reached vs. 20.2 months, p = 0.039). The rates of appetite loss, fatigue, and proteinuria of grade 3 or higher in the ATEZO/BEVA group were lower than those in the LEN group. However, the rate of bleeding of grade 3 or higher in the ATEZO/BEVA group was higher than that in the LEN group. The conversion rate was higher in the ATEZO/BEVA group than that in the LEN group (8.6% vs. 1.9%, p = 0.007). Conclusions: ATEZO/BEVA showed superiority to LEN in terms of prognosis and conversion rate as first-line therapy. Moreover, ATEZO/BEVA had a lower rate of severe adverse events, except for bleeding, than LEN.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research
- Pharmacology (medical)