A newly developed factor analysis, origin-shifted factor analysis, was compared with a normal factor analysis to analyze the spectral changes of English speech. Our first aim was to investigate whether these analyses would cause differences in the factor loadings and the extracted spectral-factor scores. The methods mainly differed in whether to use cepstral liftering and an origin shift. The results showed that three spectral factors were obtained in four main frequency bands, but neither the cepstral liftering nor the origin shift distorted the essential characteristics of the factors. This confirms that the origin-shifted factor analysis is more recommendable for future speech analyses, since it would reduce the generation of noise in resynthesized speech. Our second aim was to further identify acoustic correlates of English phonemes. Our data show for the first time that the distribution of obstruents in English speech constitutes an L-shape related to two spectral factors on the three-dimensional configuration. One factor had center loadings around 4100 Hz, while the other was bimodal with peaks around 300 Hz and 2300 Hz. This new finding validates the use of multivariate analyses to connect English phonology and speech acoustics.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Process Chemistry and Technology
- Computer Science Applications
- Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes