Background: Hepatic resection and percutaneous trans-hepatic cholangioscopic lithotomy (PTCSL) are the two main approaches to the treatment of hepatolithiasis, but comparisons of longterm followup results have not been adequately reported. Study Design: Of 86 patients with hepatolithiasis admitted to our institution between 1980 and 1996, we reviewed 54 patients: 26 who underwent hepatic resection and 28 who underwent PTCSL. Five patients who underwent postoperative cholangioscopic lithotomy were included in the former group. The remainder of the hepatolithiasis patients were not treated by hepatic resection or PTCSL and, therefore, were excluded from this study. Hepatic resections were mainly indicated for left- sided localized intrahepatic calculi, atrophic liver, and possible presence of cholangiocellular carcinoma. PTCSL was performed for right-sided, bilateral or recurrent stones at an average of 6 treatments (range 1 to 20 treatments) for each patient. There were no differences between the two groups in terms of gender or age. The recurrence rate of stones and longterm prognosis were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and other clinical factors listed below were statistically compared. Results: The rate of complete removal of stones was similarly high in each group (96.2% in the hepatic resection group versus 96.4% in the PTCSL group). The complication (38.5% versus 21.4%) and 5-year survival (85.6% versus 100%) rates were comparable. Remaining bile duct stricture (18.2% versus 60.9%, p < 0.01) and 5-year recurrence rates (5.6% versus 31.5%, p < 0.05) were statistically lower in the hepatic resection group than in the PTCSL group. Conclusions: Hepatic resection, when combined with postoperative cholangioscopic lithotomy, is a preferable treatment for left-sided stones with strictures and bilateral stones.
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