Introduction Castleman disease (CD) is a rare benign lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by benign lymph node hyperplasia in a single site (unicentric CD [UCD]) or in multiple sites (multicentric CD [MCD]). Patients with UCD are usually asymptomatic; however, those with MCD usually develop fever, weight loss, and peripheral lymphadenopathy. Case presentation We describe a case of surgically resected UCD in the superior mediastinum in which the involved lymph node was surrounded by important vessels and trachea, necessitating a median sternotomy for complete resection of the tumor. Discussion Preoperative diagnosis of UCD in the thorax is very difficult, and surgical resection or excision is necessary. Complete resection is recommended for UCD because it is curative and has a 5-year survival rate of 100%. Concludion UCD should be included in the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic mediastinal tumors. Surgical resection or excision is preferred to ensure an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment if malignant disease cannot otherwise be ruled out.
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