The gross tumor volume (GTV) regions are the fundamental regions used to determine the clinical target volumes (CTVs) and planning target volume (PTV). The accuracy of the GTVs may affect tumor control and adverse events related to organs at risk or normal tissue. The PTV is the volume that includes the CTV plus CTV-to-PTV margin including the internal margin (IM) and the setup margin (SM). This chapter introduces the computational segmentation approaches for GTV and computational determination of the CTV-to-PTV margin.
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