Herein, we demonstrate the control of protein heteroconjugation via a tyrosyl coupling reaction by using electrostatic interaction. Aspartic acid and arginine were introduced to a tyrosine containing peptide tag (Y-tag) to provide electrostatic charge. Designed negatively or positively charged Y-tags were tethered to the C-terminus of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and streptavidin (SA), and these model proteins were subjected to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) treatment. The negatively charged Y-tags showed low reactivity due to repulsive interactions between the Y-tags with the negatively charged BAP and SA. In contrast, the positively charged Y-tags showed high reactivity, indicating that the electrostatic interaction between Y-tags and proteins significantly affects the tyrosyl radical mediated protein cross-linking. From the heteroconjugation reaction of BAP and SA, the SA with the positively charged Y-tags exhibited favorable cross-linking toward negatively charged BAP, and the BAP-SA conjugates prepared from BAP with GY-tag (GGGGY) and SA with RYR-tag (RRYRR) had the best performance on a biotin-coated microplate. Encompassing the reactive tyrosine residue with arginine residues reduced the reactivity against HRP, enabling the modulation of cross-linking reaction rates with BAP-GY. Thus, by introducing a proper electrostatic interaction to Y-tags, it is possible to kinetically control the heteroconjugation behavior of proteins, thereby maximizing the functions of protein heteroconjugates.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering
- Pharmaceutical Science
- Organic Chemistry