We present a new scenario for the cooling of compact stars considering the central source of Cassiopeia A (Cas A). The Cas A observation shows that the central source is a compact star that has high effective temperature, and it is consistent with the cooling without exotic phases. The observation also gives the mass range of M ≥ 1.5 M⊙, which may conflict with the current plausible cooling scenario of compact stars. There are some cooled compact stars such as Vela or 3C58, which can barely be explained by the minimal cooling scenario, which includes the neutrino emission by nucleon superfluidity (PBF). Therefore, we invoke the exotic cooling processes, where a heavier star cools faster than lighter one. However, the scenario seems to be inconsistent with the observation of Cas A. Therefore, we present a new cooling scenario to explain the observation of Cas A by constructing models that include a quark color superconducting (CSC) phase with a large energy gap; this phase appears at ultrahigh density regions and reduces neutrino emissivity. In our model, a compact star has a CSC quark core with a low neutrino emissivity surrounded by high emissivity region made by normal quarks. We present cooling curves obtained from the evolutionary calculations of compact stars: while heavier stars cool slowly, and lighter ones indicate the opposite tendency without considering nucleon superfluidity. Furthermore, we show that our scenario is consistent with the recent observations of the effective temperature of Cas A during the last 10 years, including nucleon superfluidity.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science