Many breakwaters have collapsed in the past due to earthquakes and subsequent tsunamis, resulting in considerable devastation as the breakwaters failed to prevent the tsunami from entering the coastal plain areas. Breakwater failures are mainly caused by damage to its foundation ground. However, the damage mechanism of breakwater foundation during earthquakes and tsunamis remains unclear. This study focuses on the breakwater failure mechanism due to collapse of its foundation under the action of an earthquake and subsequent tsunami. In addition, reinforcing countermeasures for breakwater foundation to mitigate damage due to compound geodisasters triggered by earthquakes and tsunamis are proposed. Sheet piles and gabions were used in the breakwater foundation as reinforcing countermeasures. To evaluate the effectiveness of the reinforced foundation, a series of shaking table tests and hydraulic model tests were performed. The tsunami overflow tests were conducted on the same model after the earthquake loadings, and comparisons were made between the conventional and reinforced foundations. It was observed during the tests that the reinforced foundation could effectively reduce the damage to the breakwater caused by earthquake and tsunami-induced forces. Numerical analyses were performed to clarify the mechanism of the soil–breakwater–reinforcement–fluid system. Overall, this study is useful in practical engineering, and the reinforcing foundation model could be adopted for offshore structures to reduce damage from earthquakes and tsunamis in the future.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
- Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)