### Abstract

It is commonly known that two-dimensional mean-field models of optical and matter waves with cubic self-attraction cannot produce stable solitons in free space because of the occurrence of collapse in the same setting. By means of numerical analysis and variational approximation, we demonstrate that the two-component model of the Bose-Einstein condensate with the spin-orbit Rashba coupling and cubic attractive interactions gives rise to solitary-vortex complexes of two types: semivortices (SVs, with a vortex in one component and a fundamental soliton in the other), and mixed modes (MMs, with topological charges 0 and ±1 mixed in both components). These two-dimensional composite modes can be created using the trapping harmonic-oscillator (HO) potential, but remain stable in free space, if the trap is gradually removed. The SVs and MMs realize the ground state of the system, provided that the self-attraction in the two components is, respectively, stronger or weaker than the cross attraction between them. The SVs and MMs which are not the ground states are subject to a drift instability. In free space (in the absence of the HO trap), modes of both types degenerate into unstable Townes solitons when their norms attain the respective critical values, while there is no lower existence threshold for the stable modes. Moving free-space stable solitons are also found in the present non-Galilean-invariant system, up to a critical velocity. Collisions between two moving solitons lead to their merger into a single one.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 032920 |

Journal | Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics |

Volume | 89 |

Issue number | 3 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - Mar 26 2014 |

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### All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Statistics and Probability
- Condensed Matter Physics

### Cite this

*Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics*,

*89*(3), [032920]. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.89.032920