Critical properties of Cu 6 Sn 5 in electronic devices: Recent progress and a review

D. K. Mu, S. D. McDonald, J. Read, H. Huang, Kazuhiro Nogita

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

As the most common of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed between Sn-based solders and Cu substrates during the packaging of integrated circuits (ICs), Cu 6 Sn 5 is frequently involved in the fabrication of solder joints and plays an important role in the integrity of electronic devices. This is especially true for recently developed micro-bumps in 3-dimensional (3D) high-density integrated circuits (ICs), in which the volume fraction of Cu 6 Sn 5 is significantly higher than in conventional ball grid array (BGA) or through hole pin (THP) arrangements. Recently, with the use of advanced characterization techniques, significant progress has been made in the understanding of Cu 6 Sn 5 intermetallics in terms of their crystal structure, solidification behaviour, role in interface reactions, thermal expansion and mechanical properties. This improved understanding is of fundamental importance for the production of next generation electronic devices, however there is no existing comprehensive summary of this research available. Here, we provide a review on the properties of Cu 6 Sn 5 with a focus on: (1) identification of crystal structure and possible phase transformations of Cu 6 Sn 5 in real solder joints; (2) formation of Cu 6 Sn 5 during solidification of commonly used Pb-free alloys and its influence on the final microstructure; (3) the formation and growth texture of interfacial Cu 6 Sn 5 ; (4) thermal expansion and mechanical properties of Cu 6 Sn 5 and the relationship between crystal structure and temperature. The effects of selected alloying elements that have remarkable influences on the above properties are also discussed. The aim of this paper is to identify the key factors that affect the properties of this important IMC and the relationship between these properties and the integrity of solder joints under various conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)55-76
Number of pages22
JournalCurrent Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science
Volume20
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2016

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Soldering alloys
Intermetallics
Crystal structure
Thermal expansion
Integrated circuits
Solidification
Mechanical properties
Ball grid arrays
Alloying elements
Volume fraction
Packaging
Textures
Phase transitions
Fabrication
Microstructure
Substrates
Temperature

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)

Cite this

Critical properties of Cu 6 Sn 5 in electronic devices : Recent progress and a review. / Mu, D. K.; McDonald, S. D.; Read, J.; Huang, H.; Nogita, Kazuhiro.

In: Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science, Vol. 20, No. 2, 01.04.2016, p. 55-76.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mu, D. K. ; McDonald, S. D. ; Read, J. ; Huang, H. ; Nogita, Kazuhiro. / Critical properties of Cu 6 Sn 5 in electronic devices : Recent progress and a review. In: Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science. 2016 ; Vol. 20, No. 2. pp. 55-76.
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