Air pollution and its health-related effects are a major concern globally, and many people die from air pollution-related diseases each year. This study employed a structural path analysis combined with a health impact inventory database analysis to estimate the number of consumption-based PM2.5 emission-related deaths attributed to India’s power supply sector. We identified critical supply chain paths for direct (production) electricity use and indirect (consumption) use. We also considered both domestic and foreign final demand and its effect on PM2.5 emission-related deaths. Several conclusions could be drawn from our results. First, the effect of indirect electricity usage on PM2.5 emission-related deaths is approximately four times larger than that for direct usage. Second, a large percentage of pollution-related deaths can be attributed to India’s domestic final demand usage; however, electricity usage in the intermediate and final demand sectors is inextricably linked. Third, foreign final demand sectors from the Middle East, the USA, and China contribute indirectly toward PM2.5 emission-related deaths, specifically in the rice export supply chain. The results show that the Indian government should implement urgent measures to curb electricity use in rice supply chains in order to reduce the number of PM2.5 emission-related deaths.
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