We simultaneously measured 16 cytokines/chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 14 patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and 20 controls using a fluorescent bead-based immunoassay. A variety of cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, G-CSF and MIP-1β, were significantly elevated in ADEM. In particular, G-CSF showed a marked 38-fold increase compared to the control mean. Significant positive correlations with inflammatory parameters in CSF, such as cell counts and protein levels, were found for IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-8. In contrast, IL-17 produced by activated CD4+ memory T cells was not increased. The results suggested that various cytokines related to activation of macrophages/microglias and Th1 and Th2 cells are upregulated in CSF in ADEM.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy
- Clinical Neurology