[Current topics in mutations in the cancer genome].

Takeshi Iwaya, Koshi Mimori, G. Wakabayashi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are involved in the multistep process of carcinogenesis in many cancer types. Recently, global mutational analyses have revealed that the cancer genome has far greater numbers of mutations than previously thought. Furthermore, the next-generation sequencing method, which has a different principle from conventional Sanger sequencing, has provided more information on the cancer genome such as new cancer-related genes and the existence of many rearrangements in solid cancers. Somatic mutations occurring in cancer cells are divided into "driver" and "passenger" mutations. Driver mutations confer a growth advantage upon the neoplastic clone and are crucial for carcinogenesis. The remaining large majority of mutations are passengers, which, by definition, do not confer a growth advantage. Driver genes with low-frequency mutation rates (less than 10%) are also involved in carcinogenesis along with well-known drivers with high-frequency mutations. There are now several celebrated examples of anticancer drugs of which the efficacy in cancer patients can be predicted based on the genotype of several driver genes, such as EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF on the EGFR signaling pathway. The complete catalogs of somatic mutations provided by the sequencing of the cancer genome are expected to prompt new approaches to diagnosis, therapy, and potentially prevention.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)185-190
Number of pages6
JournalNihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
Volume113
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)

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