Eukaryotic morphogenesis is seeded with the establishment and subsequent amplification of polarity cues at key times during the cell cycle, often using (cyclic) nucleotide signals. We discovered that flagellum de- and repolarization in the model prokaryote Caulobacter crescentus is precisely orchestrated through at least three spatiotemporal mechanisms integrated at TipF. We show that TipF is a cell cycle-regulated receptor for the second messenger-bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP)-that perceives and transduces this signal through the degenerate c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase (EAL) domain to nucleate polar flagellum biogenesis. Once c-di-GMP levels rise at the G1 → S transition, TipF is activated, stabilized, and polarized, enabling the recruitment of downstream effectors, including flagellar switch proteins and the PflI positioning factor, at a preselected pole harboring the TipN landmark. These c-di-GMP-dependent events are coordinated with the onset of tipF transcription in early S phase and together enable the correct establishment and robust amplification of TipF-dependent polarization early in the cell cycle. Importantly, these mechanisms also govern the timely removal of TipF at cell division coincident with the drop in c-di-GMP levels, thereby resetting the flagellar polarization state in the next cell cycle after a preprogrammed period during which motility must be suspended.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Developmental Biology