Interferon (IFN), which is the only possible agent for recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation, may cause serious immune-related disorders. We report a case of de novo autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), which developed subsequent to switching from 2b pegylated interferon-α (peg-IFN) to 2a peg-IFN after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). A 51-year-old man with hepatitis C-associated liver cirrhosis underwent LDLT. About 13 months after the initiation of antiviral therapy, in the form of type 2b peg-IFN with ribavirin, a negative serum hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA titer was confirmed. Thereafter, the 2b peg-IFN was switched to 2a peg-IFN, 3 months after which severe liver dysfunction developed, despite a constantly negative HCV-RNA. Liver biopsy showed portal and periportal inflammatory infiltrates including numerous plasma cells, indicating AIH. He was treated with steroid pulse treatment, followed by high-level immunosuppression maintenance, but eventually died of Pneumocystis pneumonitis 4 months after the diagnosis of de novo AIH.
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