Background: O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a DNA repair enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O6-methylguanine to itself. Alkylation of DNA at the O6 position of guanine is an important step in the induction of mutations in the organism by alkylating agents. The O6-methyl G:T mismatch is recognized by the mismatch-repair (MMR) pathway. The biliary duct is highly exposed to alkylating agents because of its anatomical location. Methods: We examined 39 surgically resected gallbladder carcinomas and 35 extrahepatic bile duct carcinomas and evaluated the expression of MGMT and MMR protein (hMLH1 and hMSH2) by immunohistochemical staining. Results: MGMT-negative staining was detected in 59.0% of gallbladder carcinoma specimens and 60.0% of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma specimens. In gallbladder carcinoma, hMLH1 and hMSH2-negative staining was observed in 51.3% and 59.0%, respectively, whereas in extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma, the respective values were 57.1% and 65.7%. MGMT-negative staining correlated with hepatic invasion in gallbladder carcinoma and with poor prognosis in both types of tumor. Furthermore, a combined MGMT and MMR status was shown to be a more significant prognostic biomarker in both tumor types. Conclusions: Combined MGMT and MMR is a possible prognostic marker that probably reflects an accumulation of genetic mutations.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes